Usbekista

usbekista

Letzte Änderungen: Allgemeine Reiseinformationen (Geld/Kreditkarten), Einreisebestimmungen für deutsche Staatsangehörige (Visum, Registrierung). View Reise nach Usbekista Reise nach Usbekistan's full profile. It's free! Your colleagues, classmates, and million other professionals are on LinkedIn. Nutzungshinweise. Das Foto "Kuppel der Moschee, orientalische Verzierungen von Samarkand, USBEKISTA" kann für persönliche und kommerzielle Zwecke. By usbekista beginning ofCentral Asia was firmly in the hands of Russia and, despite some early resistance to the BolsheviksUzbekistan and usbekista rest of the Central Asia became a part of the Soviet Union. Retrieved 21 August The referendum passed, and Islam Karimov's term was extended by an act of parliament to December Högsta valören är numera 50, Som. Usbekista section may be confusing or Beste Spielothek in Vatersreith finden to readers. The education law of began the process of theoretical reform, but the physical base has deteriorated and curriculum revision has been slow. On 31 AugustUzbekistan declared independence after the failed coup attempt in Moscow. The Samarkand Winery produces a range free slots no deposit bonus dessert wines alle online casinos ohne einzahlung local grape varieties: Archived from the original on 3 September It is the 56th largest Beste Spielothek in Wolletz finden in the world by area and the 42nd by population. Previously close to Washington which gave Uzbekistan half a billion dollars in aid inabout a quarter of its military budgetthe government of Uzbekistan has recently restricted American military use of the airbase at Karshi-Khanabad for air operations in neighbouring Afghanistan.

Genom en folkomröstning i december förlängdes Karimovs presidentperiod. Under skedde en omorientering av Uzbekistans utrikespolitik.

Byggnaden som ska hysa det nya parlamentet är under uppbyggnad. Efter demonstrationerna har landets politiska situation förblivit osäker och ett antal personer har flytt till grannlandet Kirgizistan.

Uzbekistan är världens tredje största bomullsproducent. Uzbekistan är även ett av världens främsta länder vad gäller brytning av uran.

Marknadsekonomiska reformer har inletts, men staten har fortfarande en mycket stark kontroll över ekonomin. Ställd inför en hög inflation började dock regeringen i mitten av reformera genom att införa strängare penningpolitik, utvidga privatiseringen, genomföra en liten reducering av statens roll i ekonomin och förbättra klimatet för utländska investerare.

Den asiatiska finanskrisen och Rysslands finansiella kris har gjort att regeringen i Uzbekistan har valt att skärpa export- och valutakontrollen i landets redan i stort stängda ekonomi.

Ekonomisk politik som stött bort utländska investeringar är en betydande faktor i ekonomins stagnation.

En stor del av landarealen är öken. Endast en tiondel är uppodlad, främst i Ferganadalen i öster. Under Sovjettiden började bomull odlas och blev en dominerande gröda.

Under talet har regeringen uppmuntrat andra grödor och bomullsodlingen har minskat till hälften. Befolkningen är koncentrerad till landets södra och östra delar.

Uzbekistan var en av de fattigaste republikerna i Sovjetunionen, och stora delar av dess befolkning arbetade inom bomullsodlingen i mindre landsbygdssamhällen.

Mer än 60 procent av befolkningen lever i tättbefolkade bondesamhällen. Omkring 97 procent av befolkningen är läs- och skrivkunnig.

Vidare har andelen skolmogna som inskrivits sjunkit. Regeringen säger sig vara oroad över detta, men budgeten är fortsatt stram. Islam har en stark tradition i Centralasien.

Ryssar och ukrainare i landet är i allmänhet kristna. There are also small groups of Armenians in Uzbekistan , mostly in Tashkent and Samarkand.

There were 94, Jews in Uzbekistan in [95] about 0. Fewer than 5, Jews remained in Uzbekistan in Russians in Uzbekistan represent 5. During the Soviet period, Russians and Ukrainians constituted more than half the population of Tashkent.

Uzbekistan has a Life expectancy in Uzbekistan is 66 years among men and 72 years among women. Islam is the dominant religion in Uzbekistan, although religious belief was not allowed during Soviet rule — Greater population is believed to be non-religious but spiritual.

A Pew Research Center report stated that Uzbekistan's population is An estimated 93, Jews were once present in the country. Despite its predominance, the practice of Islam is far from monolithic.

Many versions of the faith have been practised in Uzbekistan. The conflict of Islamic tradition with various agendas of reform or secularization throughout the 20th century has left a wide variety of Islamic practices in Central Asia.

The end of Soviet power in Uzbekistan did not bring an immediate upsurge of fundamentalism , as many had predicted, but rather a gradual re-acquaintance with the precepts of the faith.

However, in the latter half of the s there has been a slight increase in Islamist activity, with organisations such as the Islamic Movement of Uzkebistan committing allegiance to ISIL and contributing fighters for terror attacks overseas, [] although the terror threat in Uzbekistan itself remains low.

According to local traditions Jews began to settle in the area 2, years ago after the exile from the kingdom of Israel by the Babylonians.

Other traditions focus on Jewish merchants settling in the area of the silk road. The Jewish community flourished for centuries with occasional hardships during the reign of certain rulers.

During the rule of Tamerlane in the 14th century Jews contributed greatly to his efforts to rebuild Samarkand and a great Jewish centre was established there.

After the area came under Russian rule in , Jews were granted equal rights with the local population. By only one synagogue out of 30 was left in Samarkand; nevertheless, underground community life continued during the Soviet era.

By there were , Jews registered in the republic. At the late s with the rise of nationalistic riots as a result of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, damaging, among others, the Jewish quarter in Andijan , most of the Jews of Uzbekistan emigrated to Israel and to the US.

A small community of several thousand remains today in the country: The Uzbek language is one of the Turkic languages close to Uyghur language and both of them belong to the Karluk languages branch of the Turkic language family.

Uzbek language is the only official state language, [] and since is officially written in the Latin alphabet. Although the Russian language is not formally clarified to be an official language in the country, it is widely used in all fields, including official documents.

Digital information from all forms of the government is bilingual. Russian is an important language for interethnic communication, especially in the cities, including much day-to-day social, technical, scientific, governmental and business use.

The country is also home to approximately one million people whose native language is Russian. The Tajik language a variety of Persian is widespread in the cities of Bukhara and Samarkand because of their relatively large population of ethnic Tajiks official 1,5 million, non-official scholarly estimates are 8—11 million.

Karakalpak , is also a Turkic language but closer to Kazakh , is spoken in the Republic of Karakalpakstan and has an official status there. This language is spoken by half a million people.

More than , people also speak the Kazakh language. In the Latin alphabet was introduced and went through several revisions throughout the s.

Finally, in , the Cyrillic alphabet was introduced by Soviet authorities and was used until the fall of Soviet Union. In Uzbekistan shifted back to the Latin script Uzbek alphabet , which was modified in and is being taught in schools since In schools, colleges and universities teach only in Latin script.

At the same time, in the country for Uzbek language is also used officially abolished the Cyrillic alphabet. Cyrillic is used in a number of popular newspapers and websites.

Some of the text on the TV on some channels is duplicated on the Cyrillic alphabet. Cyrillic is popular with the older generation of Uzbeks who grew up on this alphabet.

There are no language requirements for the citizenship of Uzbekistan. According to the official source report, as of 10 March , the number of cellular phone users in Uzbekistan reached 7 million, up from 3.

As of 1 July , the estimated number of internet users was 1. Internet Censorship exists in Uzbekistan and in October the government toughened internet censorship by blocking access to proxy servers.

The press in Uzbekistan practices self-censorship and foreign journalists have been gradually expelled from the country since the Andijan massacre of when government troops fired into crowds of protesters killing according to official reports and estimates of several hundred by unofficial and witness accounts.

Tashkent , the nation's capital and largest city, has a three-line rapid transit system built in , and expanded in after ten years' independence from the Soviet Union.

Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan are currently the only two countries in Central Asia with a subway system. It is promoted as one of the cleanest systems in the former Soviet Union.

For example, the station Metro Kosmonavtov built in is decorated using a space travel theme to recognise the achievements of mankind in space exploration and to commemorate the role of Vladimir Dzhanibekov , the Soviet cosmonaut of Uzbek origin.

A statue of Vladimir Dzhanibekov stands near a station entrance. There are government-operated trams and buses running across the city.

There are also many taxis, registered and unregistered. Uzbekistan has plants that produce modern cars. The car production is supported by the government and the Korean auto company Daewoo.

Afterward, it signed an agreement with Isuzu Motors of Japan to produce Isuzu buses and lorries. Train links connect many towns in Uzbekistan, as well as neighboring former republics of the Soviet Union.

Moreover, after independence two fast-running train systems were established. Uzbekistan has launched the first high-speed railway in Central Asia in September between Tashkent and Samarqand.

The new high-speed electric train Talgo , called Afrosiyob , was manufactured by Patentes Talgo S. Spain and took its first trip from Tashkent to Samarkand on 26 August The plant originated during World War II, when production facilities were evacuated south and east to avoid capture by advancing Nazi forces.

Until the late s, the plant was one of the leading aeroplane production centres in the USSR. With dissolution of the Soviet Union its manufacturing equipment became outdated; most of the workers were laid off.

Now it produces only a few planes a year, but with interest from Russian companies growing, there are rumours of production-enhancement plans. With close to 65, servicemen, Uzbekistan possesses the largest armed forces in Central Asia.

The military structure is largely inherited from the Turkestan Military District of the Soviet Army , although it is going through a reform to be based mainly on motorized infantry with some light and special forces [ citation needed ].

The Uzbek Armed Forces' equipment is not modern, and training, while improving, is neither uniform nor adequate for its new mission of territorial security [ citation needed ].

The government has accepted the arms control obligations of the former Soviet Union, acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty as a non-nuclear state , and supported an active program by the U.

The Government of Uzbekistan spends about 3. Following 11 September terrorist attacks in the U. Central Command 's request for access to an air base, the Karshi-Khanabad airfield, in southern Uzbekistan.

However, Uzbekistan demanded that the U. The last US troops left Uzbekistan in November Uzbekistan joined the Commonwealth of Independent States in December However, it is opposed to reintegration and withdrew from the CIS collective security arrangement in Since that time, Uzbekistan has participated in the CIS peacekeeping force in Tajikistan and in UN-organized groups to help resolve the Tajikistan and Afghanistan conflicts, both of which it sees as posing threats to its own stability.

Previously close to Washington which gave Uzbekistan half a billion dollars in aid in , about a quarter of its military budget , the government of Uzbekistan has recently restricted American military use of the airbase at Karshi-Khanabad for air operations in neighbouring Afghanistan.

The relationship between Uzbekistan and the United States began to deteriorate after the so-called " colour revolutions " in Georgia and Ukraine and to a lesser extent Kyrgyzstan.

In late July , the government of Uzbekistan ordered the United States to vacate an air base in Karshi-Kanabad near Uzbekistan's border with Afghanistan within days.

Karimov had offered use of the base to the U. It is also believed by some Uzbeks that the protests in Andijan were brought about by the U.

This is another reason for the hostility between Uzbekistan and the West. It is a founding member of, and remains involved in, the Central Asian Union , formed with Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, and joined in March by Tajikistan.

Despite criticism, this seems to be a sign of improving relationships between Uzbekistan and the West. The month of October also saw a decrease in the isolation of Uzbekistan from the West.

The EU announced that it was planning to send a delegation to Uzbekistan to talk about human rights and liberties, after a long period of hostile relations between the two.

Although it is equivocal about whether the official or unofficial version of the Andijan Massacre is true, the EU is evidently willing to ease its economic sanctions against Uzbekistan.

Nevertheless, it is generally assumed among Uzbekistan's population that the government will stand firm in maintaining its close ties with the Russian Federation and in its theory that the — protests in Uzbekistan were promoted by the US and UK.

Karimova-Tillyaeva and her team have been instrumental in promoting inter-cultural dialogue by increasing European society's awareness of Uzbekistan's cultural and historical heritage.

Uzbekistan has a wide mix of ethnic groups and cultures, with the Uzbek being the majority group. It is said, however, that the number of non-Uzbek people living in Uzbekistan is decreasing as Russians and other minority groups slowly leave and Uzbeks return from other parts of the former Soviet Union.

When Uzbekistan gained independence in , there was concern that Muslim fundamentalism would spread across the region. The expectation was that a country long denied freedom of religious practice would undergo a very rapid increase in the expression of its dominant faith.

As of , over half of Uzbekistan's population was said to be Muslim, though in an official survey few of that number had any real knowledge of the religion or knew how to practice it.

However, Islamic observance is increasing in the region. Central Asian classical music is called Shashmaqam , which arose in Bukhara in the late 16th century when that city was a regional capital.

Shashmaqam is closely related to Azerbaijani Mugam and Uyghur muqam. The name, which translates as six maqams refers to the structure of the music, which contains six sections in six different Musical modes , similar to classical Persian traditional music.

Interludes of spoken Sufi poetry interrupt the music, typically beginning at a lower register and gradually ascending to a climax before calming back down to the beginning tone.

Uzbekistan has a high literacy rate , with about Students attend school Monday through Saturday during the school year, and education officially concludes at the end of the 12th grade.

There are two international schools operating in Uzbekistan, both in Tashkent: The British School catering for elementary students only, and Tashkent International School , a K international curriculum school.

Uzbekistan has encountered severe budget shortfalls in its education program. The education law of began the process of theoretical reform, but the physical base has deteriorated and curriculum revision has been slow.

A large contributor to this decline is the low level of wages received by teachers and the lack of spending on infrastructure, buildings and resources on behalf of the government.

Corruption within the education system is also rampant, with students from wealthier families routinely bribing teachers and school executives to achieve high grades without attending school, or undertaking official examinations.

Uzbekistan's universities create almost , graduates annually, though the general standard of university graduates, and the overall level of education within the tertiary system, is low.

Several universities, including Westminster University , Turin University , Management University Institute of Singapore and Inha University Tashkent maintain a campus in Tashkent offering English language courses across several disciplines.

The Russian-language high education is provided by most national universities, including foreign Moscow State University and Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas , maintaining campuses in Tashkent.

Uzbek cuisine is influenced by local agriculture , as in most nations. There is a great deal of grain farming in Uzbekistan, so breads and noodles are of importance and Uzbek cuisine has been characterized as "noodle-rich".

Mutton is a popular variety of meat due to the abundance of sheep in the country and it is part of various Uzbek dishes.

Uzbekistan's signature dish is palov plov or osh , a main course typically made with rice , pieces of meat , and grated carrots and onions. Oshi nahor , or morning plov , is served in the early morning between 6 am and 9 am to large gatherings of guests, typically as part of an ongoing wedding celebration.

Other notable national dishes include shurpa shurva or shorva , a soup made of large pieces of fatty meat usually mutton , and fresh vegetables; norin and laghman , noodle-based dishes that may be served as a soup or a main course; manti , chuchvara , and somsa , stuffed pockets of dough served as an appetizer or a main course; dimlama , a meat and vegetable stew; and various kebabs , usually served as a main course.

Green tea is the national hot beverage taken throughout the day; teahouses chaikhanas are of cultural importance. Black tea is preferred in Tashkent , but both green and black teas are taken daily, without milk or sugar.

Tea always accompanies a meal, but it is also a drink of hospitality that is automatically offered: Ayran , a chilled yogurt drink, is popular in summer, but does not replace hot tea.

The use of alcohol is less widespread than in the West, but wine is comparatively popular for a Muslim nation as Uzbekistan is largely secular.

Uzbekistan has 14 wineries, the oldest and most famous being the Khovrenko Winery in Samarkand established in The Samarkand Winery produces a range of dessert wines from local grape varieties: Uzbek wines have received international awards and are exported to Russia and other countries.

Uzbekistan is home to former racing cyclist Djamolidine Abdoujaparov. Abdoujaparov has won the green jersey points contest in the Tour de France three times.

He would often 'sprint' in the final kilometre and had a reputation as being dangerous in these bunch sprints as he would weave from side to side.

This reputation earned him the nickname 'The Terror of Tashkent'. Chagaev defended his title twice before losing it to Vladimir Klitschko in Another young talented boxer Hasanboy Dusmatov , light flyweight champion at the Summer Olympics , won the Val Barker Trophy for the outstanding male boxer of Rio on 21 August Michael Kolganov , a sprint canoer, was world champion and won an Olympic bronze in the K-1 meter.

Gymnast Alexander Shatilov won a world bronze as an artistic gymnast in floor exercise, and gymnast Oksana Chusovitina has amassed over 70 medals for the country.

Uzbekistan is the home of the International Kurash Association. Kurash is an internationalized and modernized form of traditional Uzbek wrestling.

Football is the most popular sport in Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan's premier football league is the Uzbek League , which has consisted of 16 teams since The current champions are Lokomotiv Tashkent.

Pakhtakor holds the record for the most Uzbekistan champion titles, having won the league 10 times. The current Player of the Year is Odil Akhmedov.

Before Uzbekistan's independence in , the country used to be part of the Soviet Union football , rugby union , basketball , ice hockey , and handball national teams.

After independence, Uzbekistan created its own football , rugby union , basketball and futsal national teams. Tennis is also a very popular sport in Uzbekistan, especially after Uzbekistan's independence in This tournament has been held since , and is played on outdoor hard courts.

Chess is quite popular in Uzbekistan. Other popular sports in Uzbekistan include basketball , judo , team handball , baseball , taekwondo , and futsal.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. List of cities in Uzbekistan. This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. In particular, the last paragraph seems to lack preceding context.

Please help us clarify the section. There might be a discussion about this on the talk page. August Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Human rights in Uzbekistan. Regions of Uzbekistan and Districts of Uzbekistan. Largest cities or towns in Uzbekistan —. Uzbek Jews and Bukharan Jews.

Armed Forces of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Foreign relations of Uzbekistan and International organization membership of Uzbekistan.

Public holidays in Uzbekistan. Remembrance Day, "Xotira va Qadirlash kuni" 1 September: Independence Day, "Mustaqillik kuni" 1 October: Constitution Day, "Konstitutsiya kuni".

List of Uzbek dishes and Soviet cuisine. Central Asia portal Uzbekistan portal. Archived from the original on 27 June Retrieved 1 January Archived from the original on 13 May Retrieved 27 May Archived from the original on 1 July Archived from the original on 23 June Retrieved 7 August Retrieved 7 October Archived from the original on 31 January Retrieved 19 January Archived from the original on 23 July Retrieved 6 December Archived from the original on 4 April United Nations Development Programme.

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